Liaoning is located in the southern part of China's Northeast. Bordering on the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea in the south and the Korean Peninsula in the east and facing Japan to its southeast. Liaoning have 145,900 square kilometers.
Liaoning province lies in the east of the Eurasian Continent.It features temperate continental monsoon climate with a long winter, a warm summer and a short spring and autumn. The province receives annual sunlight radiation ranging from 100-200 calories per square cm, and 2100-2600 hours of sunlight with average temperature of 7-11o C. It enjoys 130- 200 days frost free period and 600- 1100 mm of precipitation every year. The annual rainfall is 1100 mm in the east hilly area; while in the west hilly region which is connected with Inner Mongolian plateau, the yearly precipitation is 400 mm. The rainfall in central plain is moderate with about 600 mm per year.
Liaoning has a long history. According to artifacts unearthed from the ruins of the Jinniu Mountain in Yingkou City and the Dove Cave in Kazuo County of Chaoyang City, as early as 280,000 years ago, there had been human activities in the Liaoning area. Stone implements and production tools excavated in Shenyang's Xinle Ruins and Guojia Village in Lushun of Dalian all support the conclusion that Liaoning began to enter the New Stone Age about 6,000-7,000 years ago.
During the time between the 21st century B.C. and 770 B.C., animal husbandry and handicraft industry were in the making in this area and there appeared bronze wares. After over 2,000 years of development, Liaoning had gradually become a rich agricultural area. At the same time, it had advanced industries of iron smelting, silk weaving, porcelain making and salt production. Liaoning's Benxi had already become one of the three well-known iron-smelting centers of the country.
Liaoning is the birthplace of Qing Dynasty , China's last feudal dynasty. During the later years of Ming Dynasty , the Manchus in northeast China gained strength. Led by Norhachi, they challenged the authority of the Ming court for three generations. In 1626, Huangtaiji, son of Norhachi, was enthroned as the Qing emperor in Shenyang and changed the title of the dynasty into the state of Qing in April 1636. Norhachi and his descendants picked Fushun's Xinbin, Liaoyang and Shenyang as their capitals, therefore leaving behind many historic and cultural heritages, such as Forbidden City in Shenyang, Yongling Mausoleum for Nurhachi's ancestors in Xinbin, Fuling Mausoleum for Nurhachi and Empress Xiaocigao in Shenyang, and Zhaoling Mausoleum for Emperor Huangtaiji and Empress Xiaoduanwen in Shenyang.
The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949. In eight years thereafter, Liaoning emerged as the earliest industrial base of New China. The value of its fixed assets ranked first in China, and its output value of industry took second place in the country. It contributed 17 percent of China's coal production, 27 percent of China's power generated, close to 27 percent of China's metal cutting machines, 50 percent of China's caustic soda, and 60 percent of China's steel production.
In the 20 years that followed, Liaoning manufactured China's first fighter, first submarine armed with guided missiles and first 10000-ton oceangoing ship. It occupied a brilliant page in the Chinese history of industrial development.
During the reform and opening period that began in late 1978, Liaoning took the lead to reform its state-owned enterprises. In 2003, the Chinese government made the strategic decision of rejuvenating the old industrial base in northeast China. Cashing in on the chance, Liaoning seeks to make a breakthrough. Its output value of industry reached 687.27 billion Yuan, a 12.8 percent increase from the same period of the previous year.