Thursday, August 7, 2008


Liaoning is located in the southern part of China's Northeast. Bordering on the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea in the south and the Korean Peninsula in the east and facing Japan to its southeast. Liaoning have 145,900 square kilometers.

Liaoning province lies in the east of the Eurasian Continent.It features temperate continental monsoon climate with a long winter, a warm summer and a short spring and autumn. The province receives annual sunlight radiation ranging from 100-200 calories per square cm, and 2100-2600 hours of sunlight with average temperature of 7-11o C. It enjoys 130- 200 days frost free period and 600- 1100 mm of precipitation every year. The annual rainfall is 1100 mm in the east hilly area; while in the west hilly region which is connected with Inner Mongolian plateau, the yearly precipitation is 400 mm. The rainfall in central plain is moderate with about 600 mm per year.

Historical Evolution

Liaoning has a long history. According to artifacts unearthed from the ruins of the Jinniu Mountain in Yingkou City and the Dove Cave in Kazuo County of Chaoyang City, as early as 280,000 years ago, there had been human activities in the Liaoning area. Stone implements and production tools excavated in Shenyang's Xinle Ruins and Guojia Village in Lushun of Dalian all support the conclusion that Liaoning began to enter the New Stone Age about 6,000-7,000 years ago.

During the time between the 21st century B.C. and 770 B.C., animal husbandry and handicraft industry were in the making in this area and there appeared bronze wares. After over 2,000 years of development, Liaoning had gradually become a rich agricultural area. At the same time, it had advanced industries of iron smelting, silk weaving, porcelain making and salt production. Liaoning's Benxi had already become one of the three well-known iron-smelting centers of the country.

Liaoning is the birthplace of Qing Dynasty , China's last feudal dynasty. During the later years of Ming Dynasty , the Manchus in northeast China gained strength. Led by Norhachi, they challenged the authority of the Ming court for three generations. In 1626, Huangtaiji, son of Norhachi, was enthroned as the Qing emperor in Shenyang and changed the title of the dynasty into the state of Qing in April 1636. Norhachi and his descendants picked Fushun's Xinbin, Liaoyang and Shenyang as their capitals, therefore leaving behind many historic and cultural heritages, such as Forbidden City in Shenyang, Yongling Mausoleum for Nurhachi's ancestors in Xinbin, Fuling Mausoleum for Nurhachi and Empress Xiaocigao in Shenyang, and Zhaoling Mausoleum for Emperor Huangtaiji and Empress Xiaoduanwen in Shenyang.

The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949. In eight years thereafter, Liaoning emerged as the earliest industrial base of New China. The value of its fixed assets ranked first in China, and its output value of industry took second place in the country. It contributed 17 percent of China's coal production, 27 percent of China's power generated, close to 27 percent of China's metal cutting machines, 50 percent of China's caustic soda, and 60 percent of China's steel production.

In the 20 years that followed, Liaoning manufactured China's first fighter, first submarine armed with guided missiles and first 10000-ton oceangoing ship. It occupied a brilliant page in the Chinese history of industrial development.

During the reform and opening period that began in late 1978, Liaoning took the lead to reform its state-owned enterprises. In 2003, the Chinese government made the strategic decision of rejuvenating the old industrial base in northeast China. Cashing in on the chance, Liaoning seeks to make a breakthrough. Its output value of industry reached 687.27 billion Yuan, a 12.8 percent increase from the same period of the previous year.



Yantai City lies in the northeastern part of Shandong peninsula, bordering on the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea. It is situated at the foot of the hill and beside the sea with beautiful scenery. There are many interesting places which attract thousands of tourists from all over the world, such as the Penglai Pavilion, the stone Tablet Inscriptions of the North Wei Dynasty on Mt. Yunfen, Changdao Island-the fairy land on the sea, Horse Raising Isle, National Forest Parks, natural preservation areas, provincial tourist and holiday resorts. The graceful islands, fascinating gulf and blue water with golden sands make Yantai one of the tourist sites and summer resorts in northern China. The simple and honest life style, fresh and opening culture, rich tourist resources and colorful touring activities of Yantai will bring you a new sense of recreation.

Yantai's local food is well-known all around China. Local cooks take advantage of area's abundant sea food, vegetables and fruits, creatively crafting tasty dishes. Yantai is also the cradle of wine production in China, housing the largest wine production base in Asia. With its high quality and more than 100-years of history, Zhangyu Red Wine from Yantai is a widely known brand in China and abroad. In 1987, the International Grape and Wine Bureau dubbed Yantai the "International Grape and Wine City."

Natural Resources With mountains guarding the back and seawater right in the front, Yantai abounds in gifts of natural resources and products. It has wide fishing grounds along the coast, more than 900 kilometers of coastline and over 600,000 hectares of shallow waters within 15 meters of isobaths. It abounds with prawns, sea cucumbers, abalones and scallops. It has a large quantities of mineral resources underground, of which over 30 kinds of exploitable ones have been verified to be available such as gold, copper, zinc, lead molybdenum, magnesium, coal, talc, marble, silver, iron and graphite, etc. The reserves of gold and talc take up 1/5 of the country's total respectively, while the reserves of marble rank the second of our country. Yantai is also a major production area of the famous Yantai apple and Shandong big peanut. What's more, Yantai big peanut, with longer growth period, bigger size, and higher content of protein and vitamin, are sold well at the international market, and more than 40 countries and regions is in great demand of it. Products such as tussah silk, Longkou vermicelli, giant cherry and laiyang pear, prawn, sea cucumber, abalone, etc. are well known all over the world.

Yantai Tourism:

Yantai Hill
The Golden Beach Park
Mountain Kunyu
Mushi Demesene
Dings' Former Domicile
Fujian Guildhall
Nanshan Scenic Spot Zone
Huanghai Recreation Center


Zhangjiajie City is located on the northwestern border of Hunan Province. Covering an area of 9,516 square kilometers , there are four areas under its governance: Yongding District and Wuling District, Cili County and Sangzhi County. Zhangjiajie is subtropical moist mountain climate, thus for tourists it is an ideal place to spend one's holiday. Zhangjiajie is a rising tourist city famous for its unique natural scenery and abundant tourism resources. It is located in the northwest of Hunan province, about 400 kilometers away from Changsha, capital of Hunan, covering a total area of 9,563 square kilometers with 76% mountainous area. Among the total population of 1.62 million, almost 72% people belong to ethic minorities, including Tujia , Bai and Miao nationalities.

Origin of the name

The new name of Zhangjiajie City was adopted in 1994, after the National Forest Park in the Wulingyuan Scenic Area in order to give it more prominence and after this site had been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992. The National Forest Park had been given the name of Zhangjiajie after the name of a small village located within its bounds, and now a popular tourist attraction within the park. The three-character name can be interpreted as follows: "Zhang" is a common surname in China; "jia" can be translated as "family"; and "jie" can be translated as "homeland", giving the completed translation of "Zhang family homeland." It has been reported that at least one tourist guide has said that the name may have been chosen to convey the idea or impression of "Open the family door to welcome the world" , but this is not the locally-accepted and directly translated meaning of the name.

Natural Ecological Environment

Zhangjiajie is known for its unique tourist resources. Wulingyuan Scenic Area, made up of the First National Forest Park--Zhangjiajie and two nature reserves-Suoxi Gully and Emperor Mountain, possesses 369 square kilometers. The main land feature is quartzes sandstone that is rare in the world. It is a perfect combination of the beauty of Guilin, the queerness of Huang Mountain, the peril of Hua Mountain and the magnificence of Tai Mountain. Pavilions, bridges, caves, lakes and waterfalls are everywhere. Consequently, it enjoys the name of "an enlarged potted landscape", "a miniature fairyland".
Zhangjiajie is a treasure house for natural resources. There are woody plants of 106 families, 320 genera and 850 species, backboned animals of 146 species. Among them 56 species of plants and 40 species of animals are under national protection. Precious plants include gingko, Chinese dovetrees, Chinese yew, cherry and so on. Valuable medicinal herbs include glossy ganoderma, the tuber of elevated gastrodia, the tuber of multiflower knotweed, the bark of eucommia and so on; while rare animals, the giant salamander, unicorn, Sumen antelope, south China tiger, leopard, macaque, zibet and so on.
  Zhangjiajie enjoys its rich forest resources. It has 1012 acres for forest, which covers 64.61 percent of the entire city and ranks NO.1 in Hunan province. The project of "Beautifying, Purifying and Illuminating" is being carried out. There are 1.55 square meters green land per person. Undoubtedly, it is an ideal ecological tourist zone and an international holiday village.


  Zhangjiajie raises excellent people and contains various resources. The long history of many nations, original customs together with modern culture contribute to a colorful painting.
Zhangjiajie is a habitation for minority nationalities. During the long history, Han people, Tujia people, Miao people, Bai people together with the people of other nationalities co-create a unique culture.
Zhangjiajie, a fairyland gathering essence of the heaven, has brought up thousands of elites in the hundreds of years. Among them, there are He Long-the great Chinese proletarian revolutionary leader, one of the founders of PLA, one of the ten marshals in China; Xiang Dakun, the leader of a great peasant uprising; He Pengfei, an assistant commandant in the navy of PLA; Liu Mingdeng, a chief of Taiwan soldiers in Qing Dynasty; and Chen Nengkuan, the receiver of "Two Missiles & One Satellite Medals".
Due to the reform and opening-up for more than two decades, special culture, campus culture, community culture, traveling culture, and other modern cultures constitute the lively and colorful culture world of Zhangjiajie; while inheriting traditional advantages and creating some new features as well. Now the number of cultural entertainment places, including cinemas, singing-dancing halls, cultural clubs, parks reaches more than 1000. The city also enjoys 3 public libraries with 105,000 books, 5 regional TV stations and 5 broadcasting stations, which cover all the urban and rural areas. There are 1599 schools of all levels with 251,100 students in all.
   Zhangjiajie is named after the Zhangjiajie Scenic Area. In 1979 Zhangjiajiese found this rare forest in the world. In 1982, after the permission of the State Council, the State Planning Committee approvedZhangjiajie to be the first national forest park in China. In 1988, Dayong city where Zhangjiajie is located, jointly combined with Sangzhi where the Emperor Mountain lies and Cili where Suoxi Gully sits, became a city under the direct administration of provincial government. In 1992, Wulingyuan nature reserve, consisting of Zhangjiajie national forest park, the Emperor Mountain reserve and Suoxi Gully reserve, has been listed in the "World Natural Heritage" by UNESCO. In 1994, Dayong city was renamed as Zhangjiajie city under the permission of the State Council. Now, Zhangjiajie has basically become a large-scale, high-rank tourist resort where mountains, lakes, caves and historical culture and special customs are well blended in the area of 500 square kilometers. It has Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, Emperor Mountain reserve and Suoxi Gully reserve as its core, and Maoyan River, Nine-Heaven cave, Five-Thunder Mountain, and the Universal Light Temple as its satellite tourist resorts. So far, more than 20 scenic spots have been explored, and more than 30 tourist routes have been formed. The total traveling lane adds up to more than 500 km. 


Yichang covers 21,084 km² in Western Hubei Province at the Eastern end of the Xiling Gorge , one of the Three Gorges on the Yangtze River.It is an ancient city and its history can be traced back for 4,000 years. During what is known as its Spring and Autumn Periods , Yichang was regarded as a city of great strategic importance. Many famous battles took place here, such as the Changbanpo Battle and the Yiling Battle during the Three Kingdoms Period .

Yichang's annual average temperature is high, up to 13.1℃ to 18℃ and its frost-free period is long.The annual precipitation is 1213.6 mm,but is reduced with the rising of the height of elevation.The average temperature in July is 24.1℃ to 28.8℃, in January 1.7℃ to 6.5℃. The extreme highest temperature on the record is 41.4℃,and the lowest is -15.6℃. The annual sunshine time is between 1542 hours and 1904 hours ,while the shortest is 1289 hours.Because there are high mountains on both sides of the river and much water at the feet of the mountains, winter is warm in the river valley area of the Xiling Gorge and the Qingjiang River.So Yichang is famous for its mild winter.

Population & Ethnic

Yichang has a population of 4.136 million, 1,047 thousand of which are inhabitants of cities and towns. Most of the people belong to the Han nationality, while 9.5% belong to Tujia minority, and 0.13% belong to other minority nationalities.Altogether, there are 31 ethnic groups in Yichang.

Three Travelers'Cave

Located just ten kilometers northwest of the city, the Three Travelers' Cave is one of the most famous sites in Yichang for its historic significance and natural beauty. In 819 AD three Tang Dynasty poets met in Yichang and visited the cave. Being inspired by the amazing scenery the three poets immediately created some poems which they inscribed on the cave walls. During the Song Dynasty the famous literary famous of Su on their way to take the imperial examinations in the capitol visited the cave and added their own poems. Throughout the following centuries many other scholars have added their own inscriptions to the cave. Near the entrance to the cave is a small natural spring. Local superstition holds that if a woman washes her hands in its water, her culinary skills will be greatly improved. On the hill above the cave is the Zixi Pavilion. It holds a memorial stele to the 11th century philosopher Ouyang Xiu, who lived in Yichang. It offers a spectacular view of the surrounding area.

Dragon Spring Cave

Dragon Spring Cave lies in the northern peak of Xiling Mountain and faces the Xialao Brook. It is close to the Three Visitors' Cave. The cave is 3.3 meters wide, more than 30 meters high and over 513 meters long. A visitor to Dragon Spring Cave must first cross the Dragon's Tongue Bridge before entering the cave. Once inside the cave a visitor can see many strangely shaped rocks resembling a dragon's internal organs. There is a spring of pure clean water that runs throughout the cave.

May Day Square

The May Day Square was built in April 1987. It covers an area of over 20 thousand square meters. An aluminum tablet"A Gate of the Three Gorges"has become a symbol of the city. At the entrance to the square is a statue called"A Pearl in the Gorge's Mouth". It represents a pearl mounted on a pole with three ribbons hanging down. The pearl symbolizes Yichang's development, and the three ribbons represent the Three Gorges. Below the pearl is a fountain emptying into a pool. The square is surrounded by orange trees, and is a wonderful place for locals and visitors alike to relax, and visit with friends.

Chinese Sturgeon Museum

The Chinese Sturgeon Museum is located in Xiaoxita town in Yichang. The museum was established in 1993 by the Chinese Sturgeon Research Institute to attempt to preserve this rare species. The Chinese Sturgeon, also known as the Green Sturgeon, is a migration fish. Fossil remains have shown that the sturgeon has been as earth for over 140 million years. A sturgeon can grow to over 4 meters in length and weigh over 500 kilograms, and a female sturgeon can lay over a million eggs at one time. Every year from summer to autumn Chinese sturgeon migrate to the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Since building the famous Gezhouba Dam in the 1980's, the Chinese sturgeon cannot reach their spawning grounds putting their survival at risk. Since 1984 over 4 million young Chinese sturgeons have been reintroduced to the Yangtze River.

Dragon Boat Racing

Yichang's Dragon Boat Races are world famous. Every year the city of Yichang hosts the International Dragon Boat Rally which invites teams from all over the world to compete in traditional Dragon Boat races. According to legend the race started in the Warring States Period . When the patriot QuYuan threw himself into the river to drown himself local people raced out onto the water with their boats to attempt to rescue him. In modern competitions the dragon boats are usually around 20 meters long and 1 meter wide. Each team will have a drummer, a gong beater, a coxswain, and oarsmen. The oarsmen will row and keep stroke following the rhythm of the drum and gong. Dragon Boat Races are one of the most exciting sports you'll ever see in China. With their crews straining at their paddles, these 20 meter craft can slice through the water at incredible speeds.

Wednesday, August 6, 2008


【General Introduction】
Zhuhai is a city on the southern coast of Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in the Pearl River Delta, Zhuhai borders Jiangmen to the northwest, Zhongshan to the north, and Macau to the south. Zhuhai is one of the five special economic zones in China. It faces Hong Kong in the east across the sea and joins Macau in the south. Also, it is close to many other cities in Guangdong Province.


The earliest human settlement in Zhuhai can be traced back five thousand years ago. Zhuhai is one of the starting points of the Ancient Maritime Silk Road. Wenshun Township, established in the Tang Dynasty , was the earliest administrative body governing Xiangshan area which included the present Zhuhai, Zhongshan and Macau. Xiangshan Township was formed in the Song Dynasty on account of flourishing salt industry. Xiangshan County, administered by Guangzhou Prefecture, remained through the Yuan , Ming and Qing Dynasties. Zhuhai County was established in 1953 and was promoted to Zhuhai Municipality in 1979. Special Economic Zone was founded officially in 1980.


The Zhuhai Declaration issued by the World Economic Development Declaration Conference was made public in Zhuhai in 2003. Among the World Top 500 Enterprises, over 30 of them have investment projects in Zhuhai. Zhuhai has initially formed an economic pattern featuring leading industries such as electric mechanic manufacturing, electronics and telecommunication equipment manufacturing, pharmaceutical, petrochemical and computer software along with a coordinated development of modern agriculture, tourism and service industry.


As a border city, Zhuhai has a total of 8 National Class-I and 7 National Class-II ports of entry. Its Gongbei Port is the second largest landway port of entry in China while Jiuzhou Port is the largest waterway port of entry for passengers. Apart from the advanced Zhuhai International Airport and Zhuhai Port, a major seaport hub in coastal South China, Beijing-Zhuhai Expressway, Guangdong Coastal Expressway and Jiangmen-Zhuhai Expressway also converge in Zhuhai, making it easily accessible.

【Local Specialty】

Doumen Double-shelled Crab, Hengqin Oyster, Baiteng Lotus Root, Wanshan Prawn.


Zhuhai has a complete set of cultural facilities. There are modern Sports Center, TV Center, Radio Broadcast Building and Press Building,, Jiuzhou City Cultural Plaza, Gongbei Port Leisure and Cultural Plaza, Xiangzhou Cultural Plaza, Wanzi Cultural Plaza, Doumen Beach Leisure and Cultural Plaza. There are also community entertainment facilities such as cinemas. The city holds "Zhuhai Quyi Festival" and "Zhuhai Movie Festival" every year with the active participation of the local residents. The community culture, represented by "Plaza Culture", has been a shining piece of view.

Zhuhai is also famous for its hot springs and golf clubs where you can take a break from sightseeing. The consummate tourist reception and service system offers many choices of entertainment as well. Dining and shopping are also pleasant. Western and oriental cultures collide and combine here: an open, colorful, and romantic Zhuhai awaits you.

Wolong National Nature Reserve

Wolong National Nature Reserve is a protected area located in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China. Established in 1963, the reserve covers an area of about 200,000 hectares. There are over 4,000 different species recorded in the reserve. Wolong National Nature Reserve houses more than 150 highly endangered giant pandas.

In June 1980, the China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda was established at Wolong with the efforts of both World Wildlife Fund|World Wildlife Fund and the Chinese government. To this date, researchers have conducted many breeding research on giant pandas and have successfully bred 66 panda cubs.

A mountain stream runs through the Wolong Valley ; the stream is heavily armoured with boulders and smaller rounded stones. Stream waters are rather alkaline with pH levels in the range of 8.91. Water quality turbidity is quite high due to extensive sand and gravel mining in stream.

According to a 2001 research by Dr. Jianguo Liu of Michigan State University, the rate of destruction is higher after the reserve's creation than before its creation. Using NASA's satellite images and records of population, Liu's research team concluded that due to tourism and the increase in local population, the reserve is facing an unprecedented threat. "Tourists don't think they have an impact on panda habitat, but indirectly each visitor has some impact," Liu said. "We don't see ourselves as a destructive force, but we are."

Wolong National Nature Reserve is located in the boundaries of Wenchuan County, Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, by the left bank of upper reach of Minjiang River and the east slope of Gonglai Mountain, and 134 kilometers away from the capital city Chengdu. The Reserve is 52 kilometers long from east to west, and 62 kilometers wide from south to north, covering an area of about 700,000 hectares. Established in 1963, the Reserve joined the International Man and Biosphere Reserve Network of UNESCO in 1980, and its main targets for protection are forest ecosystem and precious animals like giant pandas.


The climate in the Reserve is unique for it is located at the transitional part of Tibetan frigid and Sichuan temperate zones. The terrain of Wolong National Nature Reserve is half closed in a wonderful setting of forest surrounded by rugged snowcapped mountains in its north, west and south respectively. There is no cold current flowing in winter. And in the summer months the Reserve, with the Tibetan Plateau rising steeply to the west, receives the moisture-laden south-easterly monsoon winds and becomes a cloudy, humidity trap. There is no big disparity of temperature here in four seasons with no cold winter or hot summer. The annual average temperature is 4℃ to 5℃.The annual average precipitation here can top 1,100 millimeters.

Physical Features

The Reserve lies in the east slope of Gonglai Mountain, and the alpine valley where the Tibetan Plateau transits into Sichuan Basin. The Reserve slopes drastically from northwest to southeast. Mujiang Ground in its east section, the lowest point, has an elevation of 1,200 meters while the highest point Siguniang Mountain with an altitude of 6,250 meters. Despite their direct distance of 48 kilometers, their relative height difference tops 5,000 meters. There are 101 mountains with an altitude of over 5,000 meters including Balang Mountain, Niutou Mountain and Qianliang Mountain. Drastically tectonic movement and erosion have formed a number of valleys in the shape of V and steams flowing smoothly. All of them constitute a scenic splendor attracting world attention.


Located in the alpine valley where the Tibetan Plateau transits into Sichuan Basin, Wolong National Nature Reserve has become China's largest and certainly the most important sanctuary for giant pandas and other rare and precious animals and plants during the climatic fluctuations of the ice age, and consequently southwest China has the richest alpine and sub-alpine flora than anywhere in the world. Primitive forest and original ecosystem here are well preserved, and therefore the Reserve is appraised as a rare genebank in the world or a natural park. The subtropical damp climate provides favorable conditions for forest and vegetation to grow. According to relevant statistics, there are more than 4,000 plant species. Fragesia denudata, dove trees, Katsura trees and other precious plants grow densely under the lush coniferous forest or coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest.


In the Reserve there are over 50 species of animals and 300 species of birds. The number of giant pandas here approximately accounts for one tenth of the total, and therefore Wolong National Nature Reserve is also identified as homeland of giant pandas. Besides giant pandas, red pandas, golden pheasants, white-eared pheasants and Chinese monals as well as the stunning Firethroats, golden monkeys and Musk Deer can also be found here. Most of these animals live in temperate coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest between the altitude of 2,200-3,600 meters.

Wolong National Nature Reserve is the most famous one among the 13 giant panda reserve centers established by the Chinese government with the help of the World Wildlife Fund . Wolong National Nature Reserve is also the first one of its kind to set up a research center for giant pandas. Zoologists at home and abroad have made ecological observation of giant pandas including its number, distribution, breeding and population structure. And remarkable achievements have been made in the past years.

China General Information

China General Information

China is one of the loargest country in world.China, , is situated in eastern Asia, bounded by the Pacific in the east. The third largest country in the world, next to Canada and Russia, it has an area of 9.6 million square kilometers, or one-fifteenth of the world's land mass. It begins from the confluence of the Heilong and Wusuli rivers in the east to the Pamirs west of Wuqia County in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the west, about 5,200 kilometers apart; and from the midstream of the Heilong River north of Mohe in the north to the southernmost island Zengmu'ansha in the South China Sea , about 5,500 kilometers apart.
The border stretches over 22,000 kilometers on land and the coastline extends well over 18,000 kilometers, washed by the waters of the Bohai, the Huanghai, the East China and the South China seas. The Bohai Sea is the inland sea of China.

There are 6,536 islands larger than 500 square meters, the largest is Taiwan, with a total area of about 36,000 square kilometers, and the second, Hainan. The South China Sea Islands are the southernmost island group of China.
China is known 'Zhongguo' in Mandarin and pinyin. China is the source of many major inventions, such as what the British scholar and biochemist Joseph Needham called the "four great inventions of Ancient China": paper, the compass, gunpowder, and printing. Historically, China's cultural sphere has extended across East Asia as a whole, with Chinese religion, customs, and writing systems being adopted to varying degrees by its neighbors Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.

China History

Ancient China was one of the earliest centers of human civilization. Chinese civilization was also one of the few to invent writing independently, the others being Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley Civilization, the Mayan civilization, the Minoan Civilization of ancient Greece, and Ancient Egypt.

China City
China is very big, have lot of city,